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Report of findings from microscopic examination of fresh blood from
two patients with Hodgkin’s disease and three patients with
Dr Erik O. H. Enby, MD, Göteborg 1983.
Microbe-like findings in blood from patients with Hodgkin´s
disease and malignant tumours observed through microscopic examination
in ordinary lightfield and interference contrast are described.
Research background and information about the course and results
of the microscopy. Ideas about continued research.
Leitz’ laboratory microscope Dialux 20 equipped with a 100 W
halogen lamp. Modified UK condenser for darkfield, phase contrast
and interference contrast. Plan-Fluotar-objective. Binocular photo
tube FSA. All documentation was done with Leitz’ completely
automatic microscope camera, Orthomat.
Technical and photographic advice and modification of the UK condenser:
Christer Engdahl, Micro-Macro AB, Terrassgatan. 1, 411 33 Göteborg,
Sweden. Tel. +46-31-20 22 70.
A (Patient seen in my own practice). The diagnosis of Hodgkin’s
Disease was made at the Jubileum Clinic, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg.
Journal at Sahlgrenska Hospital. (Figure
1 and figure 2).
B (Patient at the Jubileum Clinic, Sahlgrenska
Hospital, Gothenburg). The diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Disease
was made at the Jubileum Clinic, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg.
Journal at Sahlgrenska Hospital. (Figure
3 and figure 4).
Drops of blood from the above patients.
Since 1974 I have kept myself informed about alternative medicine.
To a large extent my free time has been taken up with reading literature
in the field of what is usually called “Erfahrungsheilkunde”,
i.e. , that trend within therapy, commonly present in Germany, which
is directed towards biological totality in treatment. For literature
on the subject, see the special list of references.
As I could not use my new knowledge within my regular work as ward
physician on long-term care medicine, I opened my own private practice
in 1977 where I could provide biologically oriented methods of treatment
to those patients who wanted it. This group is increasing.
My interest soon became focused on the category of diseases which
has no clear lines in terms of course, such as Hodgkin’s disease
among others. One patient became my personal friend and I was able
to follow the course of this disease, Morbus Hodgkin, almost day
by day. A patient at Vasa Hospital in Gothenburg also increased
my interest since I was able to follow the course of her disease
under particularly favourable conditions. The patient had refused
all traditional treatment. Her lymphatic tissues reacted, swelled
maximally, became ulcerous and disintegrated. I made associations
with certain tropical parasitic diseases with similar courses such
as leprosy, for instance.
As I was prevented from doing research at Vasa Hospital, where there
were empty laboratories - research within this part of the university
is directed towards establishing the health conditions of 70-year
old individuals (the so-called 70-year study) - I realized that
the only way open was again to do it on my own. I obtained, not
without sacrifice, the costly photographic and microscopic equipment
for carrying out the following microscopic investigation.
Two principal lines of thought, which are contradictory to one another,
can be observed within bacteriology: monomorphism, where it is thought
that microorganisms are constant, and pleomorphism, where it is
thought that microorganisms can have cycles, that is, they go through
different stages of development. Monomorphism is the viewpoint that
has been sanctioned within traditional medicine.
Using darkfield microscopy on fresh blood, one of the foremost advocates
of pleomorphism, Professor Günther Enderlein (1872-1968), thought
he could establish different stages in microorganisms. He also thought
that these microorganisms caused different diseases during the course
of the cycle.
These findings, which were presented in ”Bakterien –
Cyclogenie” (1981) as well as elsewhere, have until now been
disregarded by medical science. The book has nevertheless influenced
the direction of my research.
In “Grundlagenforschung über Krebs und Leukämie”
(1981), Professor Szilvay claimed that by microscopy of fresh blood
one can anticipate the occurrence of certain malignant diseases.
These lines of thought inspired me to conduct my own research in
the same direction. I began to look at blood under the microscope.
Professor William Dunbar also conducted research concerning the
hypothetical pleomorphic character of the microorganisms. His thoughts
are documented in the book ”Zur Frage der Stellung der Bakterien,
Hefen und Schimmelpilze im System” (1981). Professor Dunbar
was strongly influenced by Professor Enderlein´s hypotheses
about the presence of blood parasites in the blood in certain diseases.
This is something I believe I have been able to verify through my
In “Die Summationsdiagnostik auf Karzinom und Präkanzerose”
(1982) Karl Windstosser shows how certain signs in laboratory studies
can indicate malignancy. He believes that with microscopy of fresh
blood in cases of precancerous or tumour diseases, one can regularly
find damaged and greatly agglutinated blood cells and that they
form so-called coin rolls, so-called erythrocyte shadows and thorn-apple
forms. The above lines of thought were guidelines for my research.
and results of microscopy
I began with darkfield microscopy in order to see what the above
researchers saw in the blood 50 years ago when darkfield proved
to be a method of observing what even today are the unknown constituents
of the blood.
In patients with Hodgkin’s Disease I saw how certain bright
points moved in the same direction at the same time, even if with
a certain shifting of phase. Then I suspected that there could be
a connection between them and thought this showed in the darkfield.
At examination of the preparation, fresh blood, in interference
contrast alternating with darkfield, it turned out to be a microorganism.
It resembled a worm with a thickening at each end. It was the ends
that sometimes gleamed during darkfield microscopy.
One end appeared somewhat thicker and could elongate the middle,
worm-like part. This elongation could in certain cases become many
times longer than the diameter of the thickened part, which in turn
- as far as I have been able to determine - may become as large
as an erythrocyte. The elongation may become up to 70 µmm
long. I have seldom found this size in my preparations and have
often found smaller, in fact, small sizes.
At the tip of the elongation is the smaller thickening which I regard
as the microorganism’s front pole. There are large numbers
of these microorganisms in the patients’ blood plasma, and
they can only be seen by interference contrast microscopy and adjusted
The microorganism moves in vitro and the direction is towards the
nearby blood cells which it appears to invade. The erythrocytes
often have changes, that look like small holes about 0,5 µm
large. They are almost impossible to convey to paper but are clearly
seen under the microscope, especially in A:s blood.
The morphological changes verified until now in a patient with Hodgkin’s
Disease (see, for example, Williams “Hematology” (1977)
and Kaplan, “Hodgkin´s Disease” (1972)), if the
microorganism I have found is a blood parasite, could be seen as
the outward manifestation of a counter-reaction, a battle against
the attacker. Thereafter I examined the blood under the microscope
of three patients with malignant tumours.
C (Patient seen in my own practice). Diagnosis of kidney tumour
made at Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg. Journal at Sahlgrenska
D (Patient seen in my own practice). Diagnosis
of breast cancer made at Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg. Journal
at Sahlgrenska Hospital.
E (Patient seen in my own practice). Diagnosis
of lung cancer made at Renströmska Hospital, Gothenburg. Journal
at Renströmska Hospital.
Drops of blood from the above patients.
and results of microscopy
In the same manner as in the previous cases, I examined fresh blood
from the three patients with malignant tumours. I could then ascertain
that a large number of worm-like microorganisms were also present
in the plasma of these patients.
The plasma can also be full of something that can be described as
clear, round disc-shaped formations about 7 µm in diameter,
that is slightly smaller than the blood cells. These formations
contain small granules that whirl around at great speed. They probably
do not move as a result of Brownian movement, the speed is too high.
The crystal clear, round, large discs, about 7 µm in diameter,
might exist in the blood as bubble-like formations which sometimes
burst and emit their contents. Many such burst bubble-like formations
can be seen in the plasma under the microscope. Then small granules
are not seen any longer. (Figure
5 and Figure 6).
I have also found large roe-like collections where the different
granules move around at great speed. I have sometimes seen how one
part of the “roe” has separated itself and moved away
out among the surrounding erythrocytes. (Figure
7 and Figure 8).
There were also roe-like collections in the plasma - about 25 µm
in diameter - with three to four round disc-like formations in them.
The small roe granules move around these disc-like formations at
great speed. I do not regard these formations as white blood cells.
The small granules resemble all too clearly the contents in the
large roe-like collections described above and increase in size
during observation under the microscope and developed dumbbell-forms
during a 24-hour period. (Figure
By microscopy of blood from the patient with breast cancer I saw,
in addition to the findings described above, that many erythrocytes
were coated with a transparent sheet that sometimes emitted a long
“neck”, sometimes with a small thickening at the end
of it. The transparent sheet seemed to be closely bound to the blood
cell. Could this contribute to explaining the cancer patient’s
still unexplained tendency to develop an anemia and the numerous
thorn-apple formed erythrocytes on the object slide? (Figure
10, Figure 11 and Figure
The microorganisms are difficult to see. They readily hide among
the blood cells on the object slide. Perhaps this could provide
a clue as to why blood cells in the cancer patients often clump
and stick together as soon as they are put on an object slide. The
microorganisms act as a sort of “cement”.
At first sight one does not see any blood parasites on the object
slide. One should leave the blood undisturbed for a few hours. Only
then do the worm-like microorganisms, the parasites, appear and
move about in the empty plasma. After two days the sample can be
interwoven with particles in different forms.
The microorganism probably needs peace and quiet in vitro in order
to venture leaving the blood cells and moving out from its hiding
place. It probably gets peace and quietness in the capillaries most
peripheral in the circulation. Here it probably leaves the erythrocyte
and begins moving freely in the plasma and can then probably penetrate
surrounding tissues where in continued quietness it can continue
its life and possibly complete part of its cycle. This could result
in tissue destructions. There are probably many different kinds
of parasites and their appearances are not entirely the same for
the five patients who have been described.
It is possible that each form of parasite prefers to complete its
cycle in its special tissue, which could explain why disturbances
will come to existence in different tissues. Some patients develop
cancer of the liver, others contract brain tumours or colon cancer.
The microorganism also gets peace and quietness in the skin where
certain types of parasites probably complete their cycles and thereby
cause skin symptoms for example itching in certain patients with
malignant diseases. For instance, I think of a number of blood diseases
which go along with such pronounced skin symptomatology that the
patients are cared for in dermatology clinics instead of in medical
clinics. Joint pain is another symptom in patients with malignant
tumours. The question can be posed whether rheumatoid diseases,
as is perhaps the case with malignant diseases, are also caused
by a parasite with a partiality for joint capsule tissue.
By means of microscopy with interference contrast one can probably
also identify many other kinds of particles in the plasma of individuals
with other chronic diseases.
In order to establish whether the tumours in a number of cases are
pure parasitic centres, the tumour tissue ought to be studied somewhat
differently than is customarily done in histopathological laboratories.
My theories about the different forms of microorganisms that I have
found can provide one explanation of recidivation in cancer patients
as well as of the fact that a patient with cancer often “fades
It would be interesting - even if peripheral in this connection
- to clarify what happens with these microorganisms when death occurs.
Do they contribute to putrefaction? Are patients who carry these
parasites already on the way of breaking down and putrefying during
the time they are ill, prior to death? This could explain the difficult-to-explain
weight decrease of 10-20 kilos which is often seen in these patients.
Hodgkin’s Disease is a parasitic disease and this also applies
to many other malignant diseases.
about continued research
- The possible affinity of the disease picture with parasitic
findings ought to be investigated.
- Investigation of the life cycle of the parasites.
- The entry of the parasites into the blood.
- Chemo-therapeutic testing of the parasites.
- Investigate the methods of treatment. For example, is X-ray
treatment a camouflage treatment where the body´s lymphatic
tissue is weakened and is no longer able to react against the
Dunbar, William, Ph.
(1981). Zur Frage der Stellung der
Bakterien, Hefen und Schimmelpilze im System.
(2. Auflage). Hoya. Semmelweis-Verlag.
(1981). Bakterien-Cyclogenie. (2.
Ausgabe). Hoya. Semmelweis-Verlag.
Kaplan, S. Henry
(1972). Hodgkin’s Disease.
Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.
Nilsson, O. & Wirsén, C.
(1968). Ljusmikroskopisk teknik.
Stockholm. A & W.
Szilvay, Gyula de
(1981). Grundlagenforschung über
Krebs und Leukämie. (2. Auflage). Hoya. Semmelweis-Verlag.
Williams, W. J.
(1977). Hematology. (2nd ed). New
(1982). Die Summationsdiagnostik
auf Karzinom und Präkanzerose.
Heidelberg. Verlag für Medizin. (Band 1).
© 1983-2004. Dr Erik Enby. All rights reserved. This article
may only be reproduced in its entirety.
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